J.IIC-CG VOLUME 21 (1996)

The Conservation of a Three-Way Painting

Michael O’Malley

On occasion, unusual works of art such as three-way pictures are found in museum collections. Little documentation exists on their history or conservation treatment. This article provides some historical context for these objects, and presents a case study of the conservation of a painted three-way picture on canvas and wood. A three-way picture permits the display of three different images by employing a simple handmade device. It is assembled so that one image lies flat at the back of a box frame, while two other images can be seen on each side of narrow vertical strips which are mounted in a strainer placed in front of the background image. Although the exact origins of these objects are obscure, they are mentioned in English literary texts of the seventeenth century. Their spread into popular culture, in the form of store signs or optical toys, is poorly documented. The painting discussed in this report probably dates from the early nineteenth century, and is part of the collection of the National Museum of American Art of the Smithsonian Institution. The treatment consisted of: removing the painted canvas strips and the painted panel, consolidating loose paint, removing dirt and varnish, repairing tears, reinforcing the folded ends of the canvas strips, integrating losses, and reassembling the work.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 21 (1996)

Histoire de cas d’un tableau changeant en papier

Denise Allard

Three-way pictures enable one to see two or three different images depending on the position of the viewer. They are made from paintings on canvas and wood, drawings or prints. The present article describes the conservation of one example of this type of object, assembled using three lithographs on paper. One of the lithographs is attached to the back of a wooden box frame. The other two images have been cut and assembled back to back in narrow strips. The strips are held vertically and perpendicularly to the background image in vertical slots made at the top and bottom of the support. During the treatment, two mock-ups of the work were constructed, one to find a practical method of cleaning the paper by an aqueous method, the other to evaluate the effectiveness under tension of several adhesives, textiles and papers subjected to variations in humidity. It was not until the materials and the method of mounting had been chosen that the object was disassembled and the paper cleaned and repaired. The repaired strips were attached to the stretcher of the support with narrow paper hinges. The support was repaired and the wood sealed before repositioning of the background lithograph. A matte placed in front of the support allowed the mounting system to remain hidden. The work was framed under glass. Decisions made throughout the various stages of treatment are explained.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 21 (1996)

The Analysis and Treatment of Two Portraits Attributed to Paul Kane (1810-1871)

John R. Gayer

This paper discusses the condition, analysis and conservation treatment of two early Canadian portraits, both oil on canvas, in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada. The portraits are attributed to Paul Kane and date from the years 1834-36. Scientific analyses of samples from the portraits, undertaken by the Canadian Conservation Institute, were for treatment purposes and to determine the materials and techniques employed by the artist. Remedial and preventive conservation measures applied to the paintings were designed to preserve features both integral and specific to the history and appearance of the portraits.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 21 (1996)

Epoxy Resin Adhesives: Report on Shear Strength Retention on Glass Substrates

Jane L. Down

Ten room-temperature-cure epoxy resin adhesives of different chemical compositions were tested for retention of shear strength after aging in the dark at 22°C (45% relative humidity (RH)) and at 75°C (dry oven, ~2-4% RH), and under high-intensity light. The tests were carried out on glass substrates. Those epoxy formulations containing a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin component and a hardener composed of a modified amine showed the highest initial shear strengths of all the products tested. Although two formulations were identified as being more resistant to loss of mechanical strength upon aging than others tested, no formulation was found to lose excessive strength under the exposure conditions employed. Loss of mechanical strength upon aging should not be a major concern when using epoxy resin adhesives on glass substrates in most conservation applications.

Download: JIIC-CG21 Down

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 20 (1995)

The Slow Drying of a Wood Section from the S.S. Beaver

Louise A. Fox, Clifford Cook

This paper describes the conservation treatment undertaken to stabilize a painted commemorative wood section in African Oak (Oldfieldia africana) cut from the paddlewheeler S.S. Beaver. Due to the damp condition and the composite nature of this object, an innovative conservation approach using controlled slow drying was selected. Monitoring of the moisture content of the wood using screw electrodes and a resistance moisture meter helped to minimize damage to the object during drying.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 20 (1995)

The Use of Enzymes in the Conservation Treatment of a Seventeenth-century Wall Map of America

Maria Bedynski

A rare wall map of North and South America, published by the French mapmaker Nicholas de Fer in 1698, required restoration before being photographed for publication. The map had paper strips glued to the recto of its four borders. These paper strips had to be removed as they covered the original printed title across the top and panels of text describing the geography of America pasted along the bottom and side margins. The paper supports for both the printed text and the strips were extremely fragile and disintegrated easily when moistened. Whole areas of text were still attached to the verso of the paper strips after they were removed from the map. This paper outlines the problems encountered during the 1991-1992 conservation treatment of the map and describes the role of an amylase (isolated from Bacillus species) in the intricate task of returning the missing areas of text to their original positions. The enzyme poultice treatment was found to be an effective method for separating the two layers of extremely fragile and closely bound paper supports.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 20 (1995)

À la frontière de l’archéologie et de la conservation – La fouille d’une sépulture amérindienne du XVIIe siècle

André Bergeron, Yves Chrétien, Robert Larocque

In 1991, an archaeological dig undertaken in Saint-Nicolas, near Quebec City, required the work of a conservator in order to rescue a seventeenth-century native burial. A careful excavation in the laboratory permitted the partial reconstitution of the burial ceremony and the preservation of artifacts too fragile for conventional field techniques. Two brass kettles, fourteen iron objects and one made of copper were unearthed and treated so as to recover a maximum of significant data on funerary rituals of the time. This paper presents the treatment procedures used, the contents of the grave, as well as the main anthropological conclusions drawn from the dig. It also illustrates the contribution of conservation to a multidisciplinary study involving archaeology, ethnology and palaeoanthropology.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 20 (1995)

Corrosion Protection of Outdoor Iron Artifacts using Commercial Rust Converters

Nancy E. Binnie, Lyndsie S. Selwyn, Carl Schlichting, Deborah A. Rennie-Bisaillion

Nine commercial rust converters and tannic acid were evaluated for their ability to form stable coatings on corroded iron artifacts stored or displayed outdoors. The rust converters were analyzed for significant chemical components using scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/XES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and in general contained tannic acid and a polymeric consolidant. They were applied to pre-rusted 10 cm x 30 cm mild steel plates, and were tested without the application of a top coat of paint. Two test methods were used: (i) a 30-day saline spray test (accelerated ageing), and (ii) up to 5 years of outdoor exposure in the prairie, central and maritime regions of Canada (natural ageing). The most rapid and severe degradation took place in the maritime climate, and the least severe in that of the prairies. After combining the results from the saline spray test and outdoor weathering, the rust converters with the best overall durability (and which are still available) are Conquest Polymeric Rust Converter and Rust-Oleum Rust Converter 7830. These coatings will protect the iron surface from redeveloping rust for several years in most outdoor environments. Other products included in this study may offer excellent protection in some environments.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 20 (1995)

Étude comparative d’une série d’anges adorateurs attribués à François-Noël Levasseur

Claude Payer

Fourteen kneeling angels, made of gilt and polychromed wood, originally from five different Quebec churches, were examined. Their attribution to a single artist, François-Noël Levasseur (1703-1794), based on stylistic comparison and uncertain historical information, was checked against an analysis of materials and techniques. Comparison of measurements, components and construction, as well as radiography, showed differences and led to reinterpreting certain historical documents.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 19 (1994)

Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Analysis of Selected Paintings from the Parisian Period of Paul-Émile Borduas

Elizabeth Moffatt, David Miller

The analysis of samples from eight paintings from the Parisian period of Quebec artist Paul-Émile Borduas (1905-1960) was undertaken. These large, predominantly black and white oil on canvas paintings date from approximately 1957 to 1959. They have experienced conservation problems such as cracking black paint, cleavage, incompletely dried paint, exudates of discoloured oil, and penetration of oil through the canvas. Analysis of black and white paint samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry provided detailed information on the nature of the pigments and binding media. Several material and technique related factors that contribute to the conservation problems are identified and discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 19 (1994)

A Conservation Strategy for a Seventeenth Century Archaeological Site at Ferryland, Newfoundland

Cathy Mathias

Archaeological iron artifacts and associated soil matrix of a seventeenth century Colonial period site at Ferryland, Newfoundland, have been studied with special emphasis on the mineralogy of the corrosion products. Eight soil samples were collected from two areas for physical and chemical characterization. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for chemical analysis. Eighteen iron nails, representing different conditions of burial, were analyzed using XRD and X-radiography. Petrographic analyses, using reflected-light microscopy and an electron microprobe, were also performed. The data suggest that resultant corrosion products and overall artifact condition were influenced by the surrounding environment. Soil data indicated that both site areas displayed a high quartz and feldspar concentration with minor clay minerals. Goethite, lepidocrocite, chromite, magnetite, quartz, feldspar and clay mineral phase(s) were identified from the iron nail corrosion products. The latter three components were a product of the environment and not an alteration product. Visual and instrumental observation of both soil and artifacts indicated that stratigraphic levels which represent fill and a burning event over approximately 50% of the excavated area would probably offer the best environment for preservation. Conservation of all ferrous metals was considered to be expensive and impractical for the Ferryland site where approximately 15,000 iron artifacts are excavated per season. The conservation strategy developed for the ferrous metals thus employed both passive and active treatment. Iron nail fragments will be oven dried. An aqueous 1% sodium hydroxide solution will be used for most other ferrous metals, excluding composites. In order to facilitate chloride removal, an immersion time of approximately one year will be required.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 19 (1994)

Accreditation in Conservation: Towards Professional Status

Barbara A. Ramsay-Jolicœur

The issue of accreditation or certification of professional conservators is discussed in relation to various definitions of a “profession,” reasons for the emergence of professions in our society, and criteria for “professional status.” The provision of professional services entails the protection of “vulnerable interests” including those of the professionals themselves, the client and the general public who may ultimately be affected by the quality of that service. Distinctions are made between “licensing” and “certification or accreditation” with respect to mandatory qualifications in order to practice in the former, and voluntary assessment and self-regulation in the latter. The status of the conservator relies to a large degree on the public perception of the profession, depending upon a reputation for both integrity and high standards of practice. The importance of a self-regulatory professional body is underlined. Some of the benefits and problems associated with accreditation are presented.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 19 (1994)

Treatment of Archaeological Baleen Artifacts at the Canadian Conservation Institute

Laura Wardlaw, Tara Grant

Over the past 15 years, more than 200 baleen objects from Thule sites in the Canadian Arctic have been treated at the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI). Baleen is a keratinous material that grows in plates that hang from the upper jaws of baleen whales. It was used by the Thule people for the production of a variety of objects, including sled shoes, containers, bows, fish nets, and as rope and lashing. Treatments at CCI have involved cleaning, consolidation and controlled drying. The drying process is critical to the final appearance of the object.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 18 (1993)

A Conservator’s Thoughts Regarding Policy and Travelling Exhibitions at the National Gallery of Canada

Marion H. Barclay

Recently, with the increased numbers of travelling exhibitions and loans, conservators practising within museums have had to redefine their role to include input into the development of policy and procedures dealing with loans of works of art. Conservators should understand what their institution considers to be its guiding purposes, as set out in its mandate, so that preventive and remedial conservation principles become a constructive part of the institution’s policies.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 18 (1993)

Electrophoretic Analysis of the Effect of Selected Fumigants on Collagenase-protease Digestibility of Skin Proteins

Robert H. Glew, Stephen L. Williams, Michael D. Stroz, Asish K. Saha

Several fumigants were examined using the SDS-PAGE technique to determine their effects on the protease digestibility of proteins in mammalian skin samples. The fumigants examined (naphthalene, paradichlorobenzene, dichlorvos, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride and ethylene dichloride) represent pesticides that historically have been used in storage units of museum collections. This study reports the effects of each fumigant on the susceptibility of skin proteins to collagenase-protease digestion during the course of six months of continuous fumigation. It was demonstrated that each fumigant examined increased the susceptibility of skin samples to proteolysis, indicating that fumigant treatment enhances skin protein degradation. As skin protein digestibility increased as the period of exposure to the fumigant increased, it appears that degradation attributed to fumigation treatment is progressive and probably cumulative.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 18 (1993)

The Examination and Replication of a Tsimshian Stone Mask from the North Pacific Coast

Ian N.M. Wainwright, Stan Frydryn, Rollo H. Myers, P. (Tom) Sawyer

The examination and replication of a stone mask from the Tsimshian village of Kitkatla are described. The mask, collected in 1879 and owned by the Canadian Museum of Civilization, has a twin which was collected in 1872 at Metlakatla and is now in the Musée de l’Homme in Paris. The two masks fit snugly together and the goal was to reunite them through replicas. The mask is made of soapstone with areas of red and green pigment which were identified by X-ray diffraction as iron oxide red and green earth (celadonite or glauconite). No paint vehicle (binding medium) was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Replication by direct moulding of the mask was considered unsafe. A three-dimensional polyurethane foam model was machined using photogrammetric contour plots as guides. The model was finished by hand, cast in epoxy resin using a silicone rubber mould, and inpainted to match the colour and texture of the original.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 17 (1992)

A Suggested Exhibition Policy for Works of Art on Paper

Karen M. Colby

This paper examines a new exhibition policy for works of art on paper as developed by the Conservation Department at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in 1991. It focuses specifically on the recommended exposure times to which works can be reasonably subjected in light of the Museum’s concurrent but sometimes conflicting mandates of preservation and display. The policy involves three sensitivity categories and proposes an annual limit (which can be converted into a bi-annual or tri-annual limit as required). Category lists have been prepared which classify most materials in the works on paper class. These assist the conservator with accurate classification of works of art into appropriate categories. The rationale behind the elaboration of the policy as well as ideas for effective administration are discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 17 (1992)

The Conservation of Archaeological Terracottas from Roccagloriosa

Krysia E. Spirydowicz

Conservation of a group of ancient terracotta figurines recovered from an intact votive deposit is described. Following an analysis of the original fabrication techniques, methods for the cleaning, repair and consolidation of the figurines are discussed. Information revealed by treatment in the field has permitted the figurines to be dated accurately and, in addition, has assisted in the interpretation of religious practices at the Lucanian site of Roccagloriosa.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 17 (1992)

La mesure de l’acidité des produits volatils

Jean Tétreault

Certain materials which are used for the fabrication of supports, display cases, storage cabinets or for other uses associated with museum artifacts emit volatile acidic compounds. The detection of these compounds is important due to the adverse effect that they can have on artifacts. A pH indicator strip which has been saturated in a glycerine-water solution gives one low-cost means of detecting the presence of acidic volatile compounds that may be present in a particular environment. Calibration curves allow the user to estimate the amount of acetic acid present in the gas phase. It is also possible to predict the potential for damage to certain types of materials from the pH readings. Several possible applications are given, including the measurement of acidic materials from a paint, the measurement of acetic acid emission from a silicone sealant, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of shellac as a vapour barrier.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 16 (1991)

Evaluation of Silver-Cleaning Products

Lyndsie S. Selwyn, Charles G. Costain

Twenty-four commercially available polishes and chemical dips for cleaning silver were evaluated. The major non-volatile components in the polishes were determined using several analytical techniques. The amount of silver removed by these products, after controlled use on silver-plated test pieces, was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The degree of scratching after polishing was recorded at a magnification of 140x using a metallograph. Retarnishing was evaluated after exposing the cleaned test pieces to a tarnishing atmosphere of either ammonium sulphide for one hour or indoor air for five months. Thirteen of the original silver-cleaning products were further evaluated by cleaning tarnished sterling-silver flatware by hand. A simple test using Plexiglas® has been devised and is recommended for checking the abrasiveness of a commercial silver polish.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 16 (1991)

The Conservation Treatment of Three Gutskin Parkas

Heather Dumka

The conservation of three Alaskan gutskin parkas is described. One of the parkas was washed and all three parkas were reshaped by temporarily relaxing the gut with water. Two of the parkas had tears and were repaired using patches made from natural hog sausage casings. Although dry gut can be quite brittle, the addition of a lubricant or humectant would change the nature of the parkas which were never supple. Storage containers were made for their safe handling and storage.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 16 (1991)

The Treatment of Rusted Machinery in Preparation for Surface Coating

George Prytulak

This paper reviews various field-tested methods for cleaning machinery and treating surface rust as preparation for display. The treatments combine the use of traditional conservation methods with commercial and industrial materials and techniques. These can be adapted and applied successfully on a small scale to meet the requirements of conservation-restoration projects. Cleaning techniques such as pressure washing, grease and oil removal, emulsion cleaning and immersion cleaning are discussed. The author also presents information on rust removal including rust convertors, mechanical removal, grinding, abrasive blasting and chemical removal when the removal of rust is necessary prior to applying a surface coating.

Download:

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 16 (1991)

La réparation d’un panier au moyen d’un support temporaire et de torsades de papier

Carole Dignard, Carl Schlichting

This article describes and illustrates the treatment of a North West Coast Indian (possibly Tlingit) basket which was structurally damaged and torn in many areas along the top portion of its vertical wall. A temporary support was made to secure the weakened basket and to allow access to both surfaces of its wall during treatment. The treatment consisted of: humidification of the basket; support and reshaping of the wall; alignment of the broken fibres; and repair of the breaks using twisted Japanese paper strands adhered with starch paste.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 15 (1990)

Application de la spectrométrie de fluorescence des rayons X à l’étude des photographies peintes

Marie-Claude Corbeil

This article shows how it is possible to detect photographic image materials underneath paint layers using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, a non-destructive technique. The method was first tested by analyzing samples made with several 19th-century photographic processes: it was demonstrated that silver can be detected in silver prints, and similarly platinum in platinotypes. The same samples were covered with watercolour paint, and the influence of 18 pigments on the detection of the image forming element was evaluated. Finally, eleven painted photographs from two collections were analyzed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 15 (1990)

A Sealed Frame-Case for a Painting

Helen McKay

A painting, egg tempera on canvas adhered to wood, had continued to exhibit overall random cracking and flaking of paint despite previous repeated attempts at consolidation. It was decided that the painting’s response to ambient relative humidity fluctuations had to be restricted. As an alternative to a traditional display case, a picture frame was modified in order to moderate the relative humidity in the immediate vicinity of the painting. It is a small sealed case incorporating silica gel. The modifications are relatively unobtrusive, and increase the depth of a painting and its frame only slightly.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 15 (1990)

Historical Silver: Storage, Display and Tarnish Removal

Lyndsie S. Selwyn

The display, storage and cleaning of historical silver is discussed in detail along with silver tarnish and its cause. Recommended storage includes wrapping silver in good-quality tissue paper followed by sealing it in a polyethylene bag. The use of lacquers or waxes to protect silver from tarnishing while on open display is described. For closed display cases, the use of silica gel to maintain a dry environment and the use of activated carbon or a suitable commercial product to remove tarnishing gases is recommended. The principles and problems associated with tarnish removal using abrasive polishing, chemical cleaning or galvanic cleaning are explained.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 15 (1990)

The Conservation of Archaeological Skin Artifacts from the Canadian Arctic

Martha Segal, Charlotte Newton

Research to develop procedures for characterizing, cleaning and stabilizing archaeological skins from the Canadian Arctic was undertaken jointly by conservation scientists and conservators at the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI). Characterization procedures, including staining techniques and shrinkage temperature measurements, were carried out on minute samples under the microscope. Cleaning methods involved the use of detergents (Synperonic N or sodium dodecyl sulphate) and a chelating agent (EDTA) for the removal of fat and mineral contaminants. These cleaning methods were applied to a group of skin artifacts excavated from a prehistoric Thule site in the Northwest Territories. Treatment was carried out by the Conservation Division, Canadian Museum of Civilization and the Archaeology Section, CCI. During the treatment, the experimental techniques developed at CCI were modified and adapted to meet the needs of the individual artifacts. This paper discusses the overall treatment, and describes the treatment of several artifacts.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 14 (1989)

Development of Archaeological Textile Mounts at the Canadian Conservation Institute

Jan Vuori, Martha Segal, Charlotte Newton

This paper describes the development and adaptation of mounts for a collection of archaeological textiles from Red Bay, Labrador. The great variety in the size and condition of the textiles meant that a number of different mounting systems had to be used. Mounts were devised which could be adapted to suit individual objects. Methods of constructing the mounts are described and illustrated. A bibliography and table show the sources and the evolution of different types of mounts for archaeological textiles.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 14 (1989)

Adhésifs à base de résines époxy : étude de solubilisation

France Rémillard

The effect of various solvents and solvent mixtures was tested on a selection of epoxy resin adhesives. The selection was based on the resistance to yellowing of the resins. Quantitative data were obtained by the measurement of the two dimensional swelling of the free film samples. The methods of testing and the results obtained will be discussed. In conclusion, a list of powerful solvents with an indication of their relative solubilizing power for the adhesive will be provided. Moreover, since each of the resins tested reacted in different ways to the solvents, some new recommendations regarding the use of epoxy resins in conservation are described.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 14 (1989)

An Improved Method for Solvent Extraction of Oil from a Whale Bone Sculpture

Robert L. Barclay

Removal of oil from a sculpture carved out of fresh, or “green,” whale bone is described. In view of the possibility of a drying oil having being applied after carving, analysis of the oil was performed. It proved to be whale oil, which is less unsaturated than typical drying oils, and thus it is not very susceptible to drying by oxidation. From several possible treatments, the choice was made to extract the oil by soaking the whole sculpture in 1,1,1-trichloroethane within a specially constructed container. In order to minimize solvent volume and loss by evaporation, a tight fitting polyethylene bag surrounded by a water jacket was used to enclose the sculpture; the solvent was then circulated by pumping it out of one end of the bag, purifying it by distillation, and returning it to the other end. An approximation of solvent purity was obtained by monitoring the optical density of the outflow daily with a rudimentary light beam/photocell densitometer. On completion of the treatment, the sculpture was mounted on a specially constructed display stand.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 14 (1989)

Some Thoughts on Conservation and Contemporary Art the National Gallery of Canada

Marion H. Barclay

The conservation of contemporary works of art has evolved from the same basic concerns as for more historical works of art. The main difference, for curator and conservator, comes with the added dimension and input from the living artist. In this paper, contemporary art is discussed in a historical context, as is the evolution of conservation. The complexity of some of the pieces of contemporary art, from a physical and ethical standpoint, is also presented. The role of the artist in the conservation process is discussed. Some examples illustrating the approaches taken by the Restoration and Conservation Laboratory of the National Gallery of Canada are presented.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 13 (1988)

Is Time Up for Time and Mrs. Tiber?

Marion H. Barclay, Richard Gagnier

While monitoring the work Time and Mrs. Tiber by Liz Magor, the National Gallery of Canada’s Restoration and Conservation Laboratory noted that the preserves in several jars were exhibiting bacterial and fungal growth. The bacterium C. botulinum was identified in a number of the jars. Due to the potential health risk, it was decided to completely replace the infected jars and preserves. This raised several interesting philosophical and ethical questions which are discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 13 (1988)

A Handling Device for Large Wooden Objects

Robert L. Barclay

Handling of large wooden objects during examination, documentation and treatment presents considerable problems. The potential for damage to delicate surfaces is increased by the number of separate handling operations prior to display, and by the weight of the objects themselves. Also, long, fragile objects require evenly spaced supports along their entire length. The device described here combines portability with the facility for rotating the object along its axis to gain access to all sides for documentation and treatment. As the devices are used in dynamically-linked pairs, an even loading over the entire length of the object is assured.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 13 (1988)

Practical Considerations for Conservation Bleaching

Helen D. Burgess

This article was written as a practical handbook and literature review for conservators who are considering the chemical bleaching of cellulosic artifacts, especially paper. The bleaches discussed fall into the two classes of (1) oxidizing agents, i.e., the hypochlorites, chlorite/chlorine dioxide and stabilized peroxide, and (2) reducing agents i.e., borohydrides and the sulphur-containing compounds. The topics covered include the factors to consider before bleaching, e.g., the effect of the bleaches on chemical or physical damage to the fibre, bleaching efficiency and colour reversion; conservation and curatorial considerations; methodology for making up bleach solutions, as well as the handling and applying of the bleaches; working properties of the individual bleaches; and washing, neutralization, alkalization and anti-chlor procedures carried out within the context of an overall treatment plan that includes bleaching. An emphasis is placed on explaining the process of making the conservation decisions relating to conservation bleaching treatments.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 13 (1988)

Frédéric Villot and Eugène Delacroix: A 19th Century Cleaning Controversy

Ewa Smithwick

This paper examines the relationship between the romantic artist Eugène Delacroix and the keeper of paintings at the Louvre, Frédéric Villot, as it pertains to the controversial issue of restoration of the paintings at the Louvre in the years 1852-61. Over the years, Delacroix’s opinions concerning cleaning were changed by the Louvre’s cleaning policy, and by the arguments of his friend Villot. Peculiarities of Delacroix’s working methods are discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 12 (1987)

Chemical Cleaning of Wet Leather

Charlotte L. Newton

Seven different chemical cleaning methods that are used to remove iron staining from wet archaeological leather were investigated to determine the nature and extent of any changes they might cause to the leather substrate. In order to ensure sufficient and consistent sample for analysis, modern vegetable tanned leather was chosen as a test material. The analytical methods used were the Society of Leather Chemists’ “Chemical Analysis of Leather,” a set of standard analyses used in industry to evaluate the condition of vegetable tanned leather. Results indicated that the running water pre-treatment stage caused extensive changes in the leather, and that for the most part chemical cleaning methods were not more damaging than water alone. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of modern sample material and the particular analytical approach used are discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 12 (1987)

Textiles Collected during the Temporary Exhumation of a Crew Member from the Third Franklin Expedition: Findings and Analysis

Barbara F. Schweger, Nancy Kerr

During the temporary exhumation and autopsy of Petty Officer John Torrington in 1984, specimens of his clothing and textiles associated with the coffin were collected for study. Research objectives were to characterize the textiles, assess their condition and determine whether they contained any information relevant to Torrington’s death in 1846. Non-destructive tests were used to characterize the textiles including microscopic analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis on particulate contaminants, fabric count and cover factor of woven fabrics. Fungal growth on wools was cultured and identified. The condition of nine specimens examined depended upon their location inside or outside the casket; all were soiled to some extent with crystalline salts of calcium, magnesium, iron and silicon. Microfungi on the wool cloth covering Torrington’s face were identified as Geomyces pannorum, a soil fungus. Some wool fibres from the casket cover were highly fibrillated. A shirt fragment which was well preserved contained skin fragments with bacteria. Contaminants on the clothing do not appear to have contributed to Torrington’s death.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 12 (1987)

The Storage of Archaeological Iron in Deoxygenated Aqueous Solutions

Mark Gilberg

Freshly excavated archaeological iron was stored in deoxygenated aqueous solutions using chemical oxygen scavengers. The most promising results were obtained using sodium sulfite though the latter must be used in conjunction with a biocide in order to control anaerobic bacterial corrosion due to the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 12 (1987)

“A Message in a Bottle”: The Conservation of a Waterlogged Parchment Document

Judith A. Logan, Gregory S. Young

The examination, analysis, recording and conservation of a waterlogged document is described. The document, written by William Edward Parry in the early 19th century, had been deposited in a rock cairn on the shore of Prince Regent’s Inlet. Examination indicated that it was composed of either parchment or vellum, or a skin prepared for writing in a similar fashion to parchment and vellum. Analytical techniques used were microscopic examination, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy spectrometry and shrinkage temperature measurements of the collagen. Recording included normal and UV photography as well as computer enhancement of selected areas. The document was successfully dried on a suction cold table.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 12 (1987)

Controlling the Environment Within a New Storage and Display Facility for the Governor General’s Carriage

Paul J. Marcon

This paper is a technical report which describes the retrofitting of low-cost environmental controls into a small building which was constructed to house and display the Governor General’s carriage. The carriage was built in the 1890s, and is still used on ceremonial occasions. A small building with plate glass windows on all sides and a flat roof had been recently constructed to display the carriage under secure conditions. As a result of the design, however, the interior of the building was subject to wide humidity fluctuations, and at certain times of the year sunlight fell directly on the black panels of the carriage. The paper describes the use of a fan, a common household thermostat, a humidistat, an electric heater and a portable dehumidifier to control the fluctuations in relative humidity. Solar effects are controlled using vertical blinds on the south, east and west windows, which must be closed at certain times of the year to prevent sunlight falling on the carriage. An improvement in the relative humidity control within the building was demonstrated.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 12 (1987)

Scientific Examination of Totem Poles at Ninstints World Heritage Site

David Grattan, Wilf Bokman, Clifford Cook

This paper reviews briefly several non-destructive methods of assessing the condition of large wooden objects, and explains why X-radiography and the Pilodyn were selected for the in situ evaluation of the condition of the Ninstints Totem Poles. The development and theoretical basis of the radiographic procedure are explained. This procedure involves the quantitative interpretation of the radiographic images, and also requires an understanding of the moisture distribution in standing poles. The paper concludes that most of the poles were structurally sound at the base.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 10 & 11 (1985/1986)

X-Radiography Study of a Chinese Kuei Vessel in the Krannert Art Museum Collection

Vanda Vitali, Jane Darcovich, Wendell Williams

An ancient Chinese kuei bronze vessel attributed to the Middle Western Zhou period was examined by X-radiography. Important information regarding its method of manufacture and composition was obtained. Radiographs and photographs of the vessel reveal: its porosity and uniformity of composition; mould marks and chaplets indicating a piece-mould construction; scratch marks and a possible broken sprue on the bottom, indicating direction of casting (upside down); round radiopaque features in the upper decorative band. This provided technical evidence in support of the authentication and the stylistic analysis and evaluation of this vessel.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 10 & 11 (1985/1986)

Slatechuck Creek Argillite: Its Structure, Composition and Dimensional Stability

Ian N.M. Wainwright, Jane L. Down

An argillite found near Slatechuk Creek on Graham Island, the largest of the Queen Charlotte Islands, has been used by Haida carvers since at least the 1820s. The history of the quarry and the techniques of carving are reviewed. Petrography, whole rock analysis, X-ray diffraction results and instrumental neutron activation analysis are reported. The rock is a carbonaceous, kaolinite slate containing the clay minerals pyrophyllite, kaolinite and lesser amounts of montmorillonite and illite. Dimensional response to fluctuations in relative humidity is quite rapid and is five times greater in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane of the rock than in the plane parallel to it. The presence of expanding clays as well as hidden structural flaws have resulted in carvings which are prone to chipping and cracking. Excessive incandescent light levels which can cause local desiccation must be avoided. Relative humidities in the range 30-50% are recommended for argillite and a review of existing display, handling and transportation procedures is advised.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 10 & 11 (1985/1986)

A Short History of Early Consumer Plastics

David Hillman

This paper gives a general overview of the historical development of early plastics materials up to the mid-twentieth century with specific reference to their application in consumer items which may be found in social history collections. Basic information will give museum personnel a greater appreciation of the variety of early plastics artifacts and help them make preliminary identifications. The care of early plastics materials is briefly discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 10 & 11 (1985/1986)

A Positioning Carriage for Stereomicroscopy and X-Ray Spectrometry

Marilyn E. Laver, Ian N.M. Wainwright

The design criteria and plans are described for a reciprocating carriage to position a stereomicroscope and X-ray energy spectrometry detector accurately over large, relatively flat objects in a horizontal orientation. The design presents a more stable, versatile, and generally cheaper alternative to the floor stands, table stands and other positioning equipment available commercially.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 10 & 11 (1985/1986)

A Wet-Peening Adapter for Air-Abrasive Machines

Robert Waller, Fred Hartwick, Sylvie Marcil, Melinda Walker

An adapter that permits the use of air-abrasive machines for wet-peening operations is described. This adapter is essentially a pair of nested syringe needles. It is inexpensive and easy to construct. Wet-peening has proven to be more effective than dry-peening for the removal of certain cohesive, polygranular encrustations from mineral specimens.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 8 & 9 (1983/1984)

A Re-examination of Vapour Phase Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching of Works of Art on Paper

Christopher Sergeant, Joseph Halmy

Bleaching of watercolours and prints which are fragile or have water-soluble ink or paint is a well-known conservation problem. Vapour phase chlorine dioxide presents a possible solution, but requires special precautions and equipment because of its toxicity. An apparatus was designed for vapour phase chlorine dioxide bleaching, and was subsequently tested to verify its safety with respect to the operator and the work to be bleached. Deacidification after bleaching was found to be an important part of the procedure.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 8 & 9 (1983/1984)

The Conservation of a Rare World War I Stamp Cancellation Device: Coping with the Deterioration of Rubber

Stan Frydryn, David W. Grattan

The conservation of a sixty year old stamp cancellation device is described. The main problem was the deterioration of the rubber components, which would have been exacerbated by display. The approach taken was to remove the rubber parts and place them in a purpose built container in cold storage. Replicas were made and installed on the body of the device allowing it to be displayed and handled, etc.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 8 & 9 (1983/1984)

Repair of Tears in Fur Skin Garments

Sandra Lougheed, Janet Mason, Jan Vuori

This paper discusses the techniques developed to repair tears in three fur skin garments. Due to the construction of the garments there was limited accessibility to their interiors. The thick fur and the thin fragile nature of the skin were also factors which had to be taken into consideration when developing suitable repair techniques.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 8 & 9 (1983/1984)

The Conservation of a Birch Bark Scroll: A Case Study

Mark R. Gilberg, John H.A. Grant

The conservation and restoration of a Midé birch bark scroll are described. The birch bark scroll was exposed to the plasticizing action of methanol vapours for a period of several weeks during which time it was slowly opened. Large cracks in the bark were backed with Japanese paper and areas of extensive delamination were adhered with Acryloid B-72. The birch bark scroll was then mounted onto linen covered 4-ply mat board using variations on standard paper hinges.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 7 (1982)

An Initial Approach to the Stabilization of Rubber from Archaeological Sites and in Museum Collections

Miriam Clavir

Objects of natural rubber or with rubber components can be found in many museum collections. However, as a relatively recent material, there has been only limited study of rubber by conservators. This article briefly describes the history of the fabrication of articles from natural rubber, and the nature of both the crude and manufactured material. The deterioration of natural rubber is discussed, and several approaches to the conservation of both waterlogged and dry rubber artifacts are illustrated. The bibliography includes references on 19th-century footwear, on the composition and degradation of rubber, and on the growth of the rubber industry.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 7 (1982)

The Microscopical Identification of Artist’s Pigments

Walter C. McCrone

This article briefly describes the process of identifying pigments using microscopy. Techniques used in the removal and handling of small pigment samples from paintings are outlined, and the different particle characteristics that are used in distinguishing pigments and identifying them are discussed. The characteristics of traditional artists’ pigments are given, and the microanalytical schemes to aid in their identification are presented. Microchemical tests that can be used to confirm the microscopical identifications are also discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 7 (1982)

Humidistatically Controlled Heating: A New Approach to Relative Humidity Control in Museums Closed for the Winter Season

Raymond H. Lafontaine

A method of humidity control, referred to as humidistatically controlled heating, is described. This method of control operates on the principle that the relative humidity of a constant volume of air with a given moisture content can be controlled by changing the temperature. The theory of operation and method of implementation are described. The results of a field test indicate that this method can be successfully used for the relative humidity control of uninhabited buildings during the winter months.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 7 (1982)

Douglas Leechman: Canada’s First Conservation Scientist

Mark R. Gilberg

The life of the late anthropologist and author, Douglas Leechman, is reviewed in light of his contributions to the development of conservation in Canada. Particular reference is made to his major work, Technical Methods in the Preservation of Anthropological Museum Specimens.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 7 (1982)

Time and Mrs. Tiber and Food Technology

Barbara W. Keyser

Time and Mrs. Tiber by Liz Magor contains 53 jars of preserved fruits and vegetables, at least six of which were highly unstable. In 1979 the artist herself expressed concern about her work. In response, food preservation literature was studied, and physicists and microbiologists from the National Research Council were also consulted. The artist was also consulted; she stated that she expected the work to change, but that its lifespan should be at least fifty years; she also felt strongly that the original fruit, lids and jars should be retained. Preservatives were tested on purchased fruit; white vinegar was most promising. Food technologists at the NRC suggested adding benzoic acid as well. A saturated solution of benzoic acid in vinegar was used to replace the fluid of the most unstable jars; lids were re-sealed with wax. The treatment adopted was conservative: only sixteen jars were treated, and the aim was merely to retard, not arrest deterioration. The work will continue to be checked periodically. Refrigerated, dark storage is recommended.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 6 (1981)

The Conservation Treatment of an Eighteenth Century English Fire Engine

Robert L. Barclay

The conservation treatment of an 18th-century fire appliance is described after a brief history of its origin. The treatment of the corroded iron, bronze and copper parts, and various accessories are discussed. The reproduction of the missing upper works with reference to early descriptions and extant examples is also described. A simple documentation technique for indicating missing and reproduced parts by line drawings is presented.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 6 (1981)

The Analysis of Watercolour Pigments from Audubon’s The Birds of America Vol. 1

Neil T. Adair, Gregory S. Young

Thirty-eight pigment samples from engravings in Volume I of The Birds of America by John James Audubon were analyzed; these engravings were hand coloured in the period 1827 to 1838. Despite severe restrictions on sample size, sixteen of these pigments were positively identified using a single-particle Gandolfi X-ray diffraction camera. Of the remainder, most were further characterized by polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy spectrometry. The comparative limitations of the three techniques are discussed. Pigments identified include ivory or bone black, lead white, cobalt blue, chrome yellow, red lead and vermilion. Organic red and blue lakes were also observed in several samples.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 6 (1981)

The Removal of Rust Stains from Arctic Tin Can Labels Using Sodium Hydrosulfite

Janet K. Hawley, Elizabeth A. Kawai, Christopher Sergeant

A series of paper labels on tin cans from various Arctic sites was treated with sodium hydrosulfite in order to remove encrusted iron stains. The treatment was based upon experiments which evaluated the effectiveness of several different procedures for removing iron stains from paper. Sodium hydrosulfite was chosen as the most effective. Its effects on unstained paper and on the metals present in the cans were evaluated, using oxalic acid as a standard for comparison.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 6 (1981)

Treatment of an Early 18th Century Cope

Michaela A. Keyserlingk

A conservation case study of the treatment of a large, early 18th-century ecclesiastical cope by the Textile Division of the Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa is discussed. The treatment was based upon the traditional sewing method: no adhesives or consolidants were applied. The article begins with a short historical background, then outlines the original condition of the vestment upon arrival at CCI before treatment and, finally, details the main steps involved in the cope’s conservation. It also covers construction of a support for display and storage of the cope.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 6 (1981)

Treatment of a Parasol Using a Reductive Bleach

Christine J. Feniak

A parasol with a badly rust-stained and split cotton/silk cover required treatment to be suitable for display. The fabric’s composite nature and the dye of the cover made more traditional bleaching and rust removal methods unsuitable, so a reductive bleach composed of 5% sodium hydrosulphite and 1% ammonium hydroxide was used. Its action is briefly discussed and compared with that of other bleaching agents. The overall treatment of the artifact is outlined, including the cleaning of the rusty brass-plated frame, the repair of the splits (using polyvinyl acetate-coated silk crepeline) and the reassembling of the piece.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 5 (1980)

The History of Conservation in Canada: Developments to the Early 1970s

Mervyn Ruggles

This paper presents the author’s personal view of the development of the conservation profession in Canada. The account begins with the early Canadian artists who also performed conservation work, and traces events which occurred over the following 300 years and have led to the emergence of the presently existing conservation institutions and organizations. This account ends in 1972, before the rapid growth of the large conservation institutions within Canada.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 5 (1980)

The Dawson City Film Find: A Major Cooperative Film Conservation Project

Michael S. Gates

Several hundred cellulose nitrate films, which had been buried in permafrost conditions for half a century, were uncovered in Dawson City in the summer of 1978. Because of this unusual provenance, the films were remarkably well preserved. Most of the subjects of the hundreds of reels are believed to be unique, and are therefore particularly significant to historians of the silent film era. The recovery of these highly flammable films was complicated by time restrictions, as the films had been discovered during the initial excavations of a construction project. This paper presents some of the problems that were faced during the emergency salvage project, which eventually resulted in the preservation of a valuable collection of cinema heritage.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 5 (1980)

A Method of Treating Oil Paintings on Paper Mounted on Plywood: Two Examples by Emily Carr

Barbara W. Keyser

An experimental method for separating oil paintings on paper from plywood auxiliary supports is described. The paintings are given a porous non-aqueous facing of Beva 371 and cheesecloth, wetted with deionized water, and rolled off the boards. The original paper support is then washed, deacidified, lined with Japanese paper, and mounted on a Hexcel sandwich panel with ragboard skins.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 5 (1980)

Contamination of a Collection by a Demineralizer/Aerosol Humidifier System

George deW. Rogers, Charles G. Costain

An ubiquitous pale green dust appeared on a large collection of artifacts located in Ottawa, Canada. Analysis of the dust revealed the presence of sodium chloride, copper corrosion products, siliceous and organic material. The source of the deposit was traced to the humidification system, which consisted of three aerosol-type humidifiers, fed with demineralized (deionized) water through copper tubing. Further investigation showed that the sodium chloride was originating from the mixed bed demineralizer, the copper was originating from the tubing, and the aerosol humidifiers were dispersing these contaminants throughout the room. The problem was eliminated when a new steam humidification system was installed. The authors conclude that aerosol type humidifiers should not be used for the humidification of collections.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 5 (1980)

The Storage of Untreated Waterlogged Wood

Rosemary Ravindra, John E. Dawson, Raymond H. Lafontaine

Untreated waterlogged wooden artifacts must often be kept submerged in water for extended periods of time prior to treatment. These conditions provide an ideal environment for the growth of various microorganisms on the wood surface which can reduce the effectiveness of future impregnation treatments. Five different techniques potentially capable of reducing this surface growth have been evaluated. These were: germicidal UV sterilization, filtration and circulation, antibiotics, cooling and biological control. In order to assess the efficiency of each technique, a semi-quantitative method for measuring the growth of bacteria on submerged wood was developed. Practical considerations such as cost and availability of materials used in each system are discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1979)

Applications of Infrared Thermography in Locating and Identifying Building Faults

Kenneth N. Burn, G.D. Schuyler

Infrared thermography is a technique that measures the thermal radiation given off by a surface. An important application of this technique is the examination of buildings in order to detect building faults. An outline of the theory of infrared temperature measurement is presented and discussed with reference to the AGA 680 Thermovision System. The environmental conditions that affect a thermographic survey are also outlined. Several common types of building fault which can be detected using thermography are discussed and illustrated. Three case histories of its use in detecting building faults are also given: a problem with a cavity wall, a problem with a high-rise building that was being used as an art gallery, and another examining heat loss from a heritage building.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1979)

Degradation of Cellulose in Conservation Bleaching Treatments

Helen D. Burgess, James F. Hanlan

Five methods of immersion bleaching were examined for their relative degradative effect upon cellulose fibres from a cotton linter source. The evaluation of the bleaching techniques included estimation of cellulose acidity, carbonyl group content, and the viscometry average degree of polymerization, both after bleaching and after bleaching plus accelerated thermal aging. The bleaches tested were pH 9.0 hypochlorite, pH 7.0 hypochlorite, pH 4.5 hypochlorite, chlorite/chlorine dioxide and stabilized hydrogen peroxide. The results of the analyses are reported and discussed along with suggestions for the use and application of these bleaches for conservation.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1979)

Archaeo-thermometry: The Assessment of Firing Temperatures of Ancient Ceramics

R. Heimann, Ursula M. Franklin

This paper deals with the mineralogical processes that occur during the firing of ceramics and examines their relevance to the determination of the firing temperatures of ancient ceramics. It is a translation and reworking of R. Heimann’s previous article “Mineralogische Vorgänge beim Brennen von Keramik und Archaothermometrie,” published in 1978/79 in Acta praehist. et archaeolog. (vol. 9/10, pp. 79-102). The topics covered here include the formation, composition, classification and structure of clay raw material, and the mineralogical changes that occur during its firing. A number of experimental methods that are used in the determination of the firing temperatures of ceramics are also discussed. A glossary of terms used in this field and an extensive bibliography are included.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1979)

The Use of a Stabilizing Wax to Protect Brass and Bronze Artifacts

Raymond H. Lafontaine

A stabilizing wax formulation is proposed as an alternative to lacquers for protecting copper, brass and bronze against atmospheric corrosion and tarnishing. This special wax is based on Renaissance micro-crystalline wax and benzotriazole. The photo-oxidation of Incralac lacquer as it relates to its removability was also determined.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1978)

Conservation of an Eighteenth Century Polychrome Relief: A Royal Coat of Arms of France

Nimet Demirdache-Riad

The conservation and restoration of a polychrome eighteenth century coat of arms are described. Cross-sectional examination of the paint layers was not sufficient to establish the original paint layer. Research into the historical background of the shield led to the recognition of a great similarity to another well documented piece in the Musée du Québec. In this way, it was established that the shield was most probably the Coat of Arms of France which had been commissioned for one of the gates of the city of Quebec in 1725. The history of the shield since that time has been traced. A knowledge of the colours used in heraldic symbolism at that time, combined with information from cross-sectional examination and analysis of paint layers, was used in establishing the original colour scheme. The condition of both the structure of the shield and the paint layers is described, as well as the conservation and restoration treatment that was carried out.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1978)

The Lightfastness of Felt-Tip Pens

Raymond H. Lafontaine

Felt-tip pens have become increasingly popular with contemporary artists in recent years. Unfortunately, the stability of the colours from these pens varies depending on the type and colour of the pen. In order to evaluate the pens available, the lightfastness of 543 felt-tip pens was determined. The effect of filtering the ultraviolet radiation component from the light was evaluated as a possible method of preservation. A colour change acceptability evaluation test was developed to provide the reader with criteria for interpreting the results.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1978)

The Oxidative Degradation of Organic Material and Its Importance in Deterioration of Artifacts

David W. Grattan

All of the organic materials of which artifacts are composed are subject to oxidative degradation, which may be photochemically or thermally induced. A brief explanation of some of the more common mechanisms is given, followed by more detailed discussions for polypropylene, natural rubber, cellulose and keratin. Remedies for deteriorating and damaged materials are limited, and the need for some kind of monitoring which would give early warning of oxidation is apparent. Chemiluminiscence measurements may be a simple way in which monitoring could be carried out.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1978)

Joining a Curved Panel Using an Improved Gluing Jig

Patrick J. Legris

A gluing jig for use in joining split panel paintings has been developed. The jig provides an efficient means for joining warped panels without the necessity of preflattening. Following a “dry run” in the jig, the join can be opened up for gluing and then closed without disturbing the previously established alignment. The construction and operation of this jig are described following a brief review of some of the past developments related to this procedure.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1978)

Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as an Aid in Removal of Stains from Textile and Ceramic Materials

Judith A. Wright, James F. Hanlan

The effects of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as an anti-redeposition agent with five cleaning solutions on nine stain/substrate systems are reported. The cleaning solutions used were phosphoric acid, sodium hexametaphosphate, Versene Fe3+ Specific, Chel DTPA 41, Sequestrene AA (EDTA) and PVP K30.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 4 (1978)

Reproducing the Paper Lining of a Seventeenth Century Lace Box

Robert L. Barclay

The severely deteriorated paper lining of a 17th-century lace box was reproduced using stencils and acrylic polymer paints. Methyl cellulose paste was employed to adhere the lining in place.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1978)

The Technical Analysis of Coinage from the Medieval Rock-Cut Church at Gurat, France

Ursula M. Franklin, Michael Gervers

The paper illustrates the usefulness of technical information in firming up a difficult chronology. The results of the semi-quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of worn coins allowed the authors to place the events that led to the abandoning of a rock-cut church in France into a precise time frame.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1978)

The Effect of Inhibitors on the Removability of Aged Ketone Resin N Varnish Films

Raymond H. Lafontaine

Many varnish resins are susceptible to photochemically induced oxidation and cross-linking leading to increased insolubility. Ketone Resin N, a popular resin used as a surface coating, is particularly prone to this. The incorporation of special inhibitors into a solution of the resin and the resulting effect on the removability at different intervals of accelerated ageing was investigated. Varying degrees of effectiveness were observed and increasing the concentration of the inhibitors improved resistance.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1978)

The Mounting for Display of a Batik by Leah Quamaluk

Gretchen J. Matthews

A highly protective, yet aesthetically pleasing, method of mounting an Inuit batik for display purposes is described. Following removal from the previous framing and subsequent cleaning, a special mount was devised that would minimize stress on the material and protect the batik from dust, light fading, and accidents such as water damage. The technique utilizes UV absorbing Plexiglas UF-1, allows for proper ventilation and permits full viewing from front and back.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1978)

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy as an Analytical Tool in Archaeological Chemistry

E.T. Leventhal, M. Thompson

A brief description of technique and several applications of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and argon ion etching to problems in the archaeology and conservation of mummy cartonnage, pottery, glass, soils, silver and corrosion products is given.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1978)

Some Aspects of the Analysis of Ancient Artifacts by Neutron Activation

R.G.V. Hancock

For a great many years, archaeologists have been recovering ancient artifacts made from pottery, obsidian, chert and metals. In many cases, the origin of the artefacts can be deduced only from chemical and physical analyses of the recovered materials. In their quest to unravel some historical reality from these surviving artifacts, researchers have employed a number of very powerful techniques. One such technique is instrumental neutron activation analysis, which has been applied quite successfully to artifact analysis, with its greatest success to date being pottery analysis. This paper outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis with a low neutron flux SLOWPOKE nuclear reactor. The determinable number of elements and the accuracy and precision of analytical measurements are discussed, as is the negative correlation of calcium with all the other elements in pottery.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1978)

A New Method of Radiocarbon Dating: Atom-Counting

E.B. Banning, L.A. Pavlish

In the conventional 14C method, age is determined on the basis of accurate measurement of beta-ray decay rate. In the new method, the individual 14C atoms are counted in a sample by using an ultrasensitive mass spectrometer. There are many advantages to this approach. The problem of cosmic ray background does not arise. Higher counting rates will make faster determinations possible on samples one thousand times smaller, and may result in greater accuracy. The new method will permit a great expansion in the kinds of materials which can be dated because only milligram samples will be required. Valuable art objects will therefore be datable without significant alteration. Research on the design of a dedicated 14C atom-counting machine is in progress.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1978)

The Use of a Diamond Cell Microsampling Device for Infrared Spectrophotometric Analyses of Art and Archaeological Materials

Marilyn E. Laver, R. Scott Williams

Applications of a diamond cell microsampling device for infrared spectrophotometric examinations and the results of such examinations on a wide range of art and archaeological materials are reported. Advantages and limitations of the device are discussed. The position of this technique in the analytical scheme at the Canadian Conservation Institute is outlined.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1977)

Conservation of an 18th Century Harp Soundboard: Puncture Damage

Robert L. Barclay

The repair of a rectangular puncture damage in an 18th-century harp soundboard is described. The filling of the lost area and the subsequent inpainting of the completed repair are outlined.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1977)

Conservation of an Abused Painting: Portrait of a Young Lady by G. Gerhard

June B. Bramall

The extremely fragile, cupped and flaking paint layer condition of an 1865 portrait by Gerhard is described. The consolidation of the paint and ground and the discovery, upon cleaning, of numerous areas of crude overpainting and a previous attempt to flatten the cupping with sandpapering are discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1977)

Conservation of an Oversized Painting: Slim Jim by Rowland Lee

Barbara W. Keyser

The cleaning and lining of a painting measuring 1.90 x 2.93 m are described. Slim Jim by the British Columbian artist Rowland Lee was lined in three sections on a vacuum hot table.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1977)

Modifications to a Convectron Mark II Vacuum Hot Table

James K. Welsh

A damaged vacuum hot table manufactured by Convectron, Incorporated (model number: VHT MK-II MOD I) was repaired for the Pacific Conservation Centre of the Canadian Conservation Institute. The design was found to be marginal with respect to longevity of the solid state relays used. Modifications were carried out to supply each relay with its own proper heat sink and protective fuse. Indicator lights were also installed to warn of blown fuses and resultant cold areas in the table top.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1977)

Conservation of Two Athapaskan Caribou Hide Robes: Ballpoint Ink Removal

Thomas G. Stone

Two caribou hide robes in the exhibition “The Athapaskans – Strangers of the North” were vandalized with blue, ballpoint ink while on display in Anchorage. Several chemical, mechanical and combined removal treatments were tested on experimental material. A purely mechanical method – using Dumont No. 3 Microforceps under a stereomicroscope – was chosen. The subsequent methods of reproducing surface texture and colour are described.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1977)

Conservation of an Inuit Sealskin Float: Reformed Around Meteorological Balloons

John H.A. Grant

The treatment of a crushed and distorted Inuit sealskin float is described. The float, covered before treatment with degraded oils and frass and with multiple punctures due to insect damage, was required for display as if inflated and “in use.” The float was cleaned, soaked in water and reformed around a pair of meteorological balloons.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1977)

Conservation of Two Whale’s Bone Fittings: Reconstruction and Support

B. Ann Krahn

The conservation of two whale’s bone artifacts, DgRw4:3011 and 3012, excavated as 250 fragments, is described. These semi-cylindrical fittings seem to have served as upper arm shields and varied in thickness from 1.0 and 2.5 mm. Their reconstruction to approximate their original shapes is described. Realignment was accomplished on a modelled Plasticine-covered core and the fragments were bonded to each other and to a silk crêpeline backing with a polyvinyl acetate adhesive. Casting was necessary to prepare an accurate support in clear acrylic for each artifact; to this end the porous, fragile bone was isolated from the casting material by a thin lead-antimony foil which rendered detail effectively.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 3 (1977)

Conservation of a 1780/81 Atlantic Neptune

Charles A.E. Brandt

A set of The Atlantic Neptune dating from 1780 to 1781 and comprising 176 charts, views and title pages with many aquatints in monochrome and colour was conserved. The leather binding had disintegrated, the boards were loose from the spine, the paper was highly acidic and soiled and there was considerable transfer of the printing inks to the opposite side of the folios creating ghost images. It was necessary to stabilize and buffer the paper to remove the ghost images through bleaching and to resew and rebind the volumes utilizing the original hand-marbled board paper.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 2 (1976)

The Analysis of Selected Staffordshire Earthenwares

Charles G. Costain, James F. Hanlan, Gary W. Vanloon

Chemical analysis has been established as a means of scientifically distinguishing between different groups of ancient potteries from widely differing times and/or locations. However, this approach has not been applied to comparatively recent ceramics of more closely related origin. We have X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, differential thermal analysis, emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy in an attempt to find diagnostic criteria for identifying various earthenwares from the Staffordshire area in the period ca 1760-1830. The four closely related groups that were investigated were cream coloured earthenware, creamware, pearlware and refined white earthenware. The results of these analyses will be reported and a discussion of their usefulness and particularly their limitations as indicators of type and time will be given. Problems encountered with sampling and non-homogeneity of the ceramic will also be considered.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 2 (1976)

Fungicide Treatment of Eskimo Skin and Fur Artifacts

Mary-Lou E. Florian

Approximately 1500 skin and fur artifacts were covered with a profuse surface growth of fungus after a malfunction in a museum’s cold storage control resulted in an 80% RH. Identification and growth parameters of fungi are discussed. Materials and methods of fabrication of skin artifacts are reviewed. To prevent contamination of other areas in the museum, the artifacts were treated with a commercial product, “Lysol Spray” containing a 68% aqueous solution of ethanol and 0.1% ortho-phenylphenol. Tests showed the fungicide to be effective and harmless to the artifacts. The sequence of steps required to control the overall problems under similar circumstances is discussed.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 2 (1976)

The Conservation of a Beaded Belt

Marilia C. Gomes

The materials and fabrication of a beaded belt from Fort Malden, National Historic Park, Amherstburg, Ontario, known as the “Tecumseh Belt,” are described. Following cleaning tests with Orvus and Airbrasive, the former was chosen. The cleaning is described in detail and the conservation materials used are listed. The dyeing and fixing of loose threads on the artifact were particularly time consuming.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 2 (1976)

The Use of a Low Pressure Cold Lining Table in the Conservation Treatment of a Large Severely Damaged Lithograph

Joseph Halmy

The low pressure lining method with the nap bond adhesive system was developed by V.R. Mehra of Amsterdam. We chose this method for lining a lithograph with a complicated tear damage, since it offered the following advantages: a relatively moisture free operation largely eliminates the distortion of the paper, since no dimensional changes occur. Also, once the edges of the tears are aligned dry, they remain in the same position held by the suction effect of the table. Our low pressure table, used for the treatment, was built to the specifications of Dr. Mehra in Amsterdam. The 127 cm x 88 cm commercial lithograph was first backed with Japanese tissue; then it was reinforced with a nylon fabric. The adhesives used were starch-methyl cellulose paste at first and Plextol (acrylic copolymer) – Natrasol (carboxymethyl cellulose) for the reinforcing fabric. Our experience shows, that the low pressure table could be effectively used for the treatment of damaged paper where the presence of moisture could cause problems.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 2 (1976)

Techniques in Serial Sculpture in the 19th Century

Rustin S. Levenson

An exhibition, “Metamorphoses in 19th-Century Sculpture,” was held at the Fogg Art Museum Nov. 19, 1975 – Jan. 7, 1976 and included works by Houdin, Barye, Carpeaux, Rodin, St. Gaudens and French in various stages of “metamorphosis.” The technical study of these pieces is an approach to the problematic area of serial sculpture. The study of chronology, technique, authenticity and originality is aided by surface examination, measurement and document research. Areas of future research are suggested.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 2 (1976)

Contemporary Art – Conservation and Reconstruction

Stewart A. Meese

From 24th May to 6th July 1975, the National Gallery of Canada held a major exhibition of paintings and three dimensional objects by the American artist Donald Judd. The preparations for the exhibition involved the National Gallery Workshop and Restoration and Conservation Laboratory in both restorative and conservation treatments together with reconstructing several earlier works under the close supervision of the artist and Brydon Smith, Curator of Contemporary Art at the National Gallery of Canada. The involvement of the Restoration and Conservation Laboratory in the reconstruction of art objects deviates slightly from the more traditional function within a gallery but points to a necessary change in attitude when dealing with contemporary art.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 2 (1976)

The Ideal of the Ideal Environment

George deW. Rogers

The concept of an ideal environment for the exhibition and storage of works of art, cultural objects and archival material is a consequence of the fact that deterioration is a function of environment and time as well as of material composition. Various workers have, in the past, proposed constant levels of temperature, humidity, light and pollution which would constitute such an ideal environment for many types of materials. These levels are examined, the practical problems of creating and maintaining some of them are discussed, and an attempt is made to evaluate the feasibility of a constant environment in the light of Canadian construction and climatic restrictions. From this study, control based on maximum and minimum acceptable levels appears feasible and these levels could form a basic set of environmental control guidelines for museums, galleries and archives in Canada.

[ download not available ]

J.IIC-CG VOLUME 2 (1976)

New Concepts of Lining – A Summary of Present Trends

Mervyn Ruggles

The lining of easel paintings is believed to have come into general practice in the 18th century. The adhesives used were mixtures of animal glue and flour paste combined with additives such as Venice turpentine, molasses, cheese and linseed oil. Hot irons were necessary to bond the lining to the original support. Frequently the overheated irons caused the paint film to blister. There was no accurate way to measure or maintain a safe uniform temperature. The introduction of thermosetting wax-resin adhesive brought advantages. The invention of the vacuum hot table provided a means of controlling temperature and pressure. Unfortunately wax-resin in many instances caused darkening of the paint film. Excessive vacuum pressure tended to produce weave imprint and texture magnification. Recent lining procedures employing the cold lining table and the vacuum envelope, together with synthetic fabrics and non-staining adhesives eliminate many of these problems.

[ download not available ]